Mullidae: K III A10

Parupeneus fraserorum (Randall & King, 2009), and Parupeneus rubescens (Lacepede, 1801)

Frasers' goatfish, and Blacksaddle goatfish.


Egg diameter in µm

Number of oil globules

Diameter of oil globule in µm

Yolk texture

Perivitelline space

Position of oil globule at hatch

Gut length   at eye- pigment stage








31% of NL



Egg: The typical size of this egg is 790/170. Black dots appear on the embryo, in 2 rows dorsally (which merge midway down the embryo), and scattered on the yolk next to the embryo (A1). On the oil globule, they are ventral, and numerous (A1). *The PVS can be wider than usual in some batches of eggs. The oil globule is usually oblong, and always untinted. Incubation is about 25 hours.

Larva: This larva was separated from the previous one (KIIIA9), by the significantly shorter gut (C & D). At 4 days, the larva develops a dark line of pigment over the gut (E1). B: NH, C: 2 days, D: 4 days, E: 5 days (24°C).

Repeated attempts to rear this common egg, were unsuccessful. Thirty-two larvae from eggs, have been barcoded, 20 of which match the sequence of three adult P. fraserorum collected off the KZN coast. The other 12 match 5 locally collected P. rubescens adults (BOLD). Clearly the eggs and early larvae of these two species are very similar.

Ikeda & Mito (1988) illustrate Upeneus bensasi and Parupeneus chrysopleuron eggs as having a segmented yolk. Shao et. al. (2001) list U. bensasi, but do not mention a segmented yolk. This study has also indicated eggs of some mullids with the yolk segmented (EIIIB1), and others clear.

This was the 12th most common egg off Park Rynie (Introductory Notes; Table 3). It occurs all year round, with a slight spring maximum (blue graph). It was also seen in the DHM samples, with a similar scattered presence through the year. At Park Rynie, the egg has shown a steady presence, after being virtually absent in the first year (white graph). In the Park Rynie linked samples, the eggs were slightly more abundant offshore (57%), but this low ratio indicates another species that is spawning on the shelf, inside the spawning zone of the two indicator species, in 20-30m water depth. See Section 7.3 and Table 1 of the Introductory Notes, for more information on the linked samples.

Linked samples